To avoid confusion I should say that it is impossible to understand non-formal education in opposition to the formal. Historically, since the 19th century, there was the juxtaposition of formal and real education.
Formal education is oriented to the development of invariants and universals of culture: classical languages, formal languages (logic and mathematics), basic Sciences, classical art. The ideals of education in formal education are drawn from classical literature or from the biographies of heroic history. Training in formal education focused on the higher strata of society, preparing the aristocrats, the elite.
On the contrary, real education is built on the basis of the content present-day activities. Studied modern science, true knowledge is necessary. Education and training oriented to ideals and samples of the middle class. The informal education opposed formalized and not formal. Informal education is rather public, sometimes private, not public. State and originally built as a formal and private education fairly quickly formalized and byrekratiserade.
If we consider education in the greater story, it’s almost always been rather informal. Formalization characteristic, first, to the medieval education under the control of the Catholic or Orthodox churches. In memory of a very formal school leaving the term scholasticism .
Second, the formalization inherent in a fair education, built as services, when educational services are sold on the open market. And then the production of services is formalized, adapt to the demand, to the needs and demands of consumers.
Thirdly, education is formalized when it gosudarstvami and byrekratiserade. Europe’s nation States, starting with the 17th and 18th centuries (the era of centralized States and the absolutist monarchies) were actively implemented in the educational sphere and to 19-20 centuries almost all education in continental Europe became a state. To a lesser extent it affected England, and almost did not affect US. Therefore, in Europe non-formal education was developed as an alternative to the state and formalized and was perceived as something new. He was treated with suspicion.
In the United States, where the state for a long time, practically till 60-ies of XX века2, refrained from intervention in the education sector, there is not only the opposition of informal education to formalized, but the border between them is sometimes difficult to draw. The interaction of private, governmental, public, religious education in the United States contributes to their convergence, and requires all types of education, standardization and technologization. So the fashion on pedagogical standards and technology occurs in the twentieth century in the United States and from there spreads to the rest of the world. Moreover, the tone in this fashion sets just informal, less private education. And only then these or other standards and technologies adopted the state system of education and formalized.
Modern trends in non-formal education in Europe consists in the fact that the opposition and the opposition of informal education to formalized state is softened, establish a mutually supportive relationship. Non-formal education, whether private or public, becomes the test laboratory and proving ground for new technologies, to develop new standards. When new technologies and standards stand the test in the brutal competition in the field of non-formal education, they adopt the state education system and private schools. This understanding of the relationship between formal and informal education, several conclusions can be drawn:
First, formal and informal education needs to be technologically compatible with each other. To implement the compatibility and convertibility of various systems of education actually required standardization and standards as norms and standards.
Secondly, non-formal education does not imply a rejection of standards and technology. Just standards and technologies in non-formal education, nobody argues. Educational processes in the field of non-formal education can use a variety of standards, systems, standards and approaches to them. The people and institutions of non-formal education can easily change the standards to create new, combining technologies.
Thirdly, formal education system initially created by a certain approved standard, and orderly reformed in the transition from one system of standards to another. In non-formal education standards arise, reflektiruet and executed. System standards are evolving and evolyutsioniruet in the field of non-formal education. We can say that formal education arises due to the standardization, and in non-formal education arise, the standards themselves, or it was there and the process of standardization.